Tree Notes is about trees -- especially native trees, trees for wildlife, and trees in history.

Monday, October 1, 2007

How to grow a black walnut tree from seed

Black walnut fruit and leavesBlack Walnut leaves and nuts
Wikimedia Commons image


Black walnut trees are easy to start from seed. In a favorable site, they often reach 80 to 100 feet in height and their crowns may spread an equal distance.

Choose the planting site carefully


Black walnuts secrete juglone, a chemical that is toxic to many plants. Locate your planting at least 60 feet from any sensitive plants or garden areas.

Black walnut trees will do very well in a moist bottom area that is well drained, or on a moist hillside or upland site. They will tolerate occasional dry spells, and they accept any soil pH from moderately acidic to moderately alkaline.

If you are planting walnuts as garden trees, space the plantings about 60-70 feet apart so their crowns can develop a majestic spread as they mature. However, if you're planting black walnuts for their valuable wood, plant them about 30 feet apart so their trunks will grow long and straight.

Planting the seeds


Gather the nuts as they fall from a tree in your area, and remove the husks. Place half a dozen nuts several inches apart in a cluster, four or five inches deep. If you have squirrels, lay a piece of hardware cloth over the planting spot and pin it to the ground with v-shaped wires. Lay a mulch of straw or leaves over the hardware cloth to reduce the freeze/thaw cycles. Mark the site so you can find it again.

After fall planting and a session of damp, cold weather, the walnut seeds will germinate in the spring. Remove the mulch and hardware cloth from the planting spot in late winter, and mark the spot clearly so you don't accidentally mow over it! After the baby trees have grown for a few months, choose the best one and eliminate the others.

69 comments -- please add yours:

Anonymous said...

Strange advice. How about removing the husk in the fall washing them, storing in a beer frig at 35 degrees and about 4 months before planting 2 inches deep on 4-20-08 I soak them for 24 hours in reg water?

Genevieve said...

Thanks for your comment, Anonymous. Personally, I like the idea of planting them in the ground and being done with it. If your method works for you, that's what you should continue doing. Honestly, there's nothing very difficult about starting black walnuts from seed. It happens all the time in nature.

Lisa said...

We recently had a severe thunderstorm roll through our neighborhood. Lightning hit my black walnut tree, splitting the top. I have walnut seeds all over my yard and would like to plant them. Unfortunately, they didn't fall naturally in Autumn. It is only mid-July. Can I plant them now or should I store them until fall? If I store them, can you recommend how and at what temperature? My email address is lm.jarvis@hotmail.com

Cynthia said...

Just found a walnut tree on a nuture hike with my grandsons, want to know if we do plant a seed and try to grow a tree, how long does it take for the tree to start produceing nuts, and do we need to have a second tree near by for the tree to polinater?

Cynthia said...

We have another question. How long does it take the walnut to mature so you can actually eat them? They should be allowed to fall from the tree, correct?

Genevieve said...

Lisa,

All I can advise is to plant some of them now and plant more of them later when it cools down. They should be fine until fall in your refrigerator. The real question is whether the seed is mature enough to germinate. Only the test of planting them will provide the answer

Genevieve said...

Cynthia,

I think the standard advice is that the black walnut is self-pollinating, but it does better with other black walnuts close by.

Some of our black walnut trees started producing a few nuts when they were about five years old.

We pick up the nuts from the ground, but I suppose you could pick them from the tree when they begin falling -- if you can reach them. Pick a few nuts, crack them out, and see what the nutmeats are like. That's the best way to answer your question.

Anonymous said...

I have many Black Walnut Trees in our neighborhood. I'm trying to eliminate sapplings that the squirls have planted and are killig the other plants in my garden. So far I have been able to dig them out. Some however are larger. I have dug down 3.5 feet and it looks as though I will have to go that much farther again to get them out. If I cut them off down this far will they grow back? Is there anything I can put on them to keep them from growing back. ROck salt for instance? I have found that even the samlest piece of root stock will start to grow if close to the surface.

Thanks Carl

Genevieve said...

I suggest contacting your University Extension agent with this question, Carl. I don't have any experience with your problem.

Mary said...

To eliminate a tree that you can't dig: Just cut it at the base. When it starts to sprout leaves, spray it with weed killer. Repeat if necessary.I do it all the time here and it has never failed me yet.

Willie said...

We literally have hundreds of walnut trees on our farm. Grandpa used to cut dying or damaged trees for firewood but would leave nut producing trees, walnut, oak, hickory, etc. He would pick up the walnuts after they fell off the trees around the yard and nearby pastures. He would then place them in the driveway and run over them with the family car as he went around with business as usual. After the husks were mostly worn off by this method he would clean the remaing husks off and put them on chicken wire screens to dry. After drying they could be cracked for their meat inside and used as desired, eating or baked into brownies or cookies and such.

Long story short, if you want the nuts from walnuts, pick them up off the ground after they fall and either let the husks dry for awhile, it is a bit easier to dehusk when dried, or dehusk them then. I would highly recommend wearing gloves when dehusking as the oil from the husks will definately stain anything it comes in contact with, hands, clothes, anything, and is hard to get off. They are best if dried for a period of time after dehusking. Grandpa used to let them dry in the basement over the winter. If you crack them shortly after they fall from the tree the meaty insides will be kind of moist and won't taste exactly like they do in the stores.

Anonymous said...

Hi,

I've collected a few walnuts that I hope to plant. We plan to move sometime next year and I was wondering if there was some way to store the seeds until that time. Would keeping the seeds in the fridge for several months (possibly 6) harm the viability of the seeds? Thanks@

Genevieve said...

Anonymous, you might want to read up on stratifying the seeds in moist sand over the winter. They would probably keep better that way than in the refrigerator.

Here is a good pdf about stratifying the walnut seeds in a pit in the ground.

Anonymous said...

Hi, i am an amatuer, how do you get the husks out of the walnut shell?
thanks

Genevieve said...

Hi, Anonymous. A couple of the methods for removing the husks (outer wrapper) of the walnut have something to do with concrete -- placing the nuts on concrete and stomping on them with heavy boots, throwing them on your driveway and running over them with your car repeatedly, Be advised that this may stain the concrete. You can also put them on a newspaper pad, and (very carefully) cut the husk with a strong, sharp knife. If you are processing a large amount of walnuts, you can place them in the barrel of a concrete mixer and give them a whirl. Wear gloves whenever you handle them because they contain a strong natural brown dye.

Anonymous said...

hi, when planting walnuts from seed to hopefully make a tree, do you plant the whole nut including the shell? And also how well do walnut trees grow from seed? for example if i planted 10 seed how many on avetrage would produce trees?
thanks

Genevieve said...

Hello, Anonymous #5. Yes, plant the whole nut including the shell, but minus the thick outer hull. I have no way of estimating what germination rate you might get. The PDF I linked to a couple of comments ago has some directions about how to determine if the seed is filled out. You would want to discard any that are lightweights, because they would be unlikely to germinate.

Linda Reason said...

I'm now confused. I thought the advice said remove the walnut shell and plant the walnuts. But the last reply says "plant them in their shell". Which is it? Last year I planted a whole load of walnuts in pots. The shells had slightly split open and good healthy looking pale green shoots were sprouting out of them. Not a single one produced a plant. At first, reading the dialogue, I assumed that my mistake was in not removing the shells. If that's not so, why did none of my shooting seeds produce plants? The walnuts had been left in a bag all winter (producing lots of shoots) and I planted them in spring.

Genevieve said...

The original suggestions that I gave in the post were, "Gather the nuts as they fall from a tree in your area, and remove the husks. Place half a dozen nuts several inches apart in a cluster, four or five inches deep."

I don't think anything here contradicts that -- we've merely been discussing how to get the husks (hulls) off the nuts.

I don't know why your sprouted nuts did not grow. I suggest planting some de-hulled nuts in the fall. That's the way Mother Nature and the squirrels plant black walnut trees, and they have pretty good luck.

Anonymous said...

A friend has given me a walnut tree in a pot (I am assuming she planted it from seed). It is about 18inches high. I am in Australia, so it is Spring, heading in to summer. Any suggestions? We have a mediterranean climate (hot summer, mild winter with frosts but sunny days). Everything I have read so far says plant from seed, but one website said bare-root planting in winter might work. Welcome any suggestions before I maybe waste time planting it.

Genevieve said...

Yes, by all means, plant it.

If the tree has been an indoor plant until now, you should set it outside in a sheltered area for a week or so in its pot to let it toughen up a little. (Remember to water it now and then.)

Find a sunny spot where the tree will enough room in maturity -- it may reach 100 feet (30 meters) in height and the same amount in width. In other words, it needs 50 feet (15 meters) on all sides, and 100 feet (30 meters) overhead. Plenty of sunshine is important.

When you take the tree out of the pot, notice whether the roots are wound into a circle from growing around the bottom of the pot. If they are, loosen them gently and spread them out the best you can when you place the tree in its planting hole.

Fill the hole with soil, firming it around the tree. Then water thoroughly to settle the dirt and fill again. Try to get the tree set in the soil about the same depth as when it was growing in the pot -- no deeper, no shallower.

If it is hot and dry, you will need to water the tree thoroughly about once a week, especially while it is getting established.

Hope this helps. Good luck.

Dissident Lemming said...

There are 1000's of Walnut trees in the city where I live, and I would love to gather the nuts this fall when they start to drop so I can plant them on some rural property. How do I identify that the trees are Black Walnut as opposed to some other type?

Genevieve said...

I recommend getting a field guide for trees (or several) from a library or bookstore this summer while the trees still have their leaves and immature fruit. Take the book or books to the tree you want to identify. Look up "black walnut" or Juglans nigra in the index and see whether the listed characteristics match what you see in the tree. Or call the urban forester of your city.

Anonymous said...

Can walnut grow in tropical Africa?

Thank You.
Mystic kad

Genevieve said...

Here is a map of the natural range of black walnut. I would guess that it wouldn't do well in the tropics, but I don't know for sure.

ausheaven said...

I note with interest regarding the height. I just came back from a farm and they have this walnut tree which is no more than 10 feet tall and full of walnut. I picked a few off the ground and a few from the branch that has the outer husk opened showing the nut.The nut are quite nice after cracking it, just like those found in the shop. Are we talking about the same tree species.

Genevieve said...

Ausheaven, some cultivars of black walnuts will produce nuts when just a few years old. I have no idea what sort of nut tree you saw, so I don't know if we are talking about the same tree or not. You should ask for its Latin name. Juglans nigra is the North American black walnut.

Anonymous said...

The easiest way I've found to husk and plant black walnuts is to find concrete surface you don't mind to stain, get a bucket of water, a hammer (decently heavy framing hammer, masonry hammer, etc. - something at least 16 oz. with a flat striking surface) and some rubber gloves. Beat the walnuts individually with the hammer against the concrete. Use the side of the hammer (not the claw or head). Two or three strikes removes most of the husk. As you husk them, drop them in the bucket of water. Empty ones float. For planting, stratify for three months or so in the fridge or outside covered; for eating, dry in a box or something, turning every several hours in a warm, well circulated room. Put your oven on the lowest setting, dry on cookie sheets with the door cracked for an hour or so, turning occasionally. Store for as long as you can stand to without eating them all.

Kate said...

Hi;
Discovered your blog while searching for info on these trees. It may be too dry in my area but I think I'll still give it a try. Thx for the very helpful advice. :$)

Peter said...

Hello there. one person asked if they were different trees if they look like the ones in the stores. They answer is Yes! They are likely Persian (some call them English) Walnuts. They have a softer shell and a much higher percent of nut meat to shell by weight. The Black Walnut however, has an extraordinarily hard shell, and less nut meat. That said, it is a much sweeter tasting nut meat.
For De-hulling, use a square of wide expanded metal or chicken wire on the ground of a stand a few inches above the ground, and a pair of rough soled boots. Rub you feet over the nuts until the hulls are worked off the nut. Expanded metal works best. Optionally, lay them out in a single layer in a flat sunny area and let them dry, then use the expanded metal. (this method is my favorite)
They need cold through the winter to germinate.
The Persian Walnut is usually grafted onto Black Walnut roots because they are more disease resistant.
To intentionally stunt them, grow them in deep pots with no bottom raised off the ground, and when the tap root grows through the bottom it will dry out and split. that will result in a shorter tree. Also you will want to cut out the Central Leader when the tree is about 4 years old. Planting them closer together also helps stunt them. They like a well drained soil at least to the first meter (yard) or so, but will tolerate more 'wet feet' than Pecans will.

David K said...

I want to start walnut trees in an area that currently is currently 75% maple trees and 25% oak. There are mature trees and saplings, but the maples are the dominant saplings. If I start walnuts, will the maples prevent them from growing, by blocking too much light?

Genevieve said...

The National Forest Service Sylvics Manual states, "Young black walnut seedlings are intolerant of shade and are seldom found under dense tree canopies." Maples do produce some very dense shade.

School Links said...

I moved into a home with a walnut in the yard. My husband and I are wanting to build a sandbox around the base of the tree-as there is no grass growing aroung the tree, will this harm the tree????

Genevieve said...

If you want to keep the tree healthy, avoid changing the soil level around it. Adding soil (sand is a soil) more than a couple of inches deep is very likely to suffocate the roots that are covered. That is, they will not be able to absorb adequate water or air. It may not kill your tree, but it will be weakened and more susceptible to disease and insects. Thick mulches have the same effect.

Anonymous said...

I have a farm and can tell you that if you have a plant with roots too deep to dig them all out (even tree roots), all you need to do it dig a hole around the roots you want to get rid of, and cut the tree (or plant) off as far below the ground-line as possible.

Next, go to a farm store - like Orschleins or Tractor Supply - and get "TORDON RTU" liquid to pait over the "cuts" on the tree-root ends you just made. (Tordon RTU also prevents "suckers" and new tree growth from re-starting if you trimmed the suckers and left lthe host tree [the adult] in tact and still standing.

Once the blue-colored Tordon RTU liquid has dried, you can fill the hole back up with dirt to ground level, and plant grass or flowers on top of the newly filled soil. Only the vegetation that was painted blue will not grow, other plants with shorter roots will thrive over it.

That's all there is to it! It's also a great help for left-over storm damage from tornadoes and high-winds - when there are trees partially downed. You only have to fix it once!

Anonymous said...

I live in western France and had great results growing a Juglans regia (European walnut) tree from seed. Twenty years ago I just picked up a walnut from beneath a tree, removed the green husk, and stuck it in the soil near the house. For years I thought it was a sapling Ash tree, but four years ago it suddenly shot up with proper walnut leaves, and we had our first harvest in 2009, okay just two walnuts but what a grand surprise! This year there are at least 100 and they are already very plump. So if you don't want to go all technical I suggest just pushing the hull-less nut straight into the ground once the summer is over. By the way, this "daughter tree" has much nicer nuts than the mother tree, bigger and sweeter.

alex p said...

I just collected some fruits that fell after a hurricane: husks are not opened yet, shall I leave them under somengood sun to let them open on their own ? What is the effect on the potential germination of having fruits falling prematurely ? Is seeds more likely to germinate if they are kept moist after the husks is gone ?

Genevieve said...

Alex, you might find it helpful to read the first page or two of the PDF document that is mentioned above as a source of info about stratification:
http://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/wn/wn_1_02.pdf

Tafsir Ali said...

Hi,

I'm thinking of growing some "regular" black walnut trees from seed that will serve as my rootstock. Can I graft a different variety onto this rootstock so that it fruits in 2-3 years instead of the 10-12 years that a regular walnut tree takes? If yes, which variety would that be?

Thanks

Anonymous said...

Can walnuts be potted during October and kept inside during the winter (minnesota)? or is it best to put them in the ground now and let Mother Nature take its course?

Anonymous said...

On dehusking;
Has anyone ever tried burning them off? I realize they are green, but the husk is rather spongy and light compared to solid wood. A screen over a fire and roll them around once in a while. No good for planting, but you do not need to remove the husk for that.

Second; Since they can tolerate being stepped on and driven over; someone who has a great number of them and the inclination could try a cement mixer with rocks or broken cement in it. A more industrial approach. (How do you think commercial operations do it? One at a time?)

Josh Lynch said...

Genevieve,

I have 3 acres of hillside deciduous forest/woods surrounding my house plot. I would like to utilize the wooded hillside for black walnut.
Any advice for planting in a wooded area?

Josh

Anonymous said...

Genevieve,
Any idea on "How to grow walnut tree from nuts indoor?" If yes, how long would it take to see a leaf from the beginning?. I appreciate to receive all details.

Genevieve said...

I have no experience with starting a walnut tree inside the house, so I can't advise you. Perhaps you can find a nurseryman's guide somewhere, such as Google Books, and see what they recommend.

Genevieve said...

Josh, sorry I ignored your comment. Black walnut seedlings are not shade tolerant. That might be a problem.

kathy said...

Hi,
had a question about the temp range
they grow in up north. I'd like to try some in southern Me. Our winters have been pretty mild lately, nothing much below -10 degrees. What do you think my chances are of having any success?
Thanks for the helpful blog,
Kathy

Genevieve said...

I checked several tree suppliers' websites and they all say that black walnuts will grow in Zones 4 through 8 or 9. Most or all of Maine falls in Zone 4, so you should be OK, as long as you can meet other needs of the tree. I suggest that you talk to your county extension agent or a reputable local nurseryman, and ask them about growing black walnuts in your area.

Bob Hougher said...

I began my love affair with Walnut trees in 1982 planting saplings from the Iowa nursery in Ames. My success was very dependent on the weather. One year while replanting, I noticed a tree about twice the size of any other walnut in the area. I knew the squirrels had "planted" it. Then I started planting the nuts I picked up from a magnificent specimen on Main St. Surprise, Surprise. Being a "squirrel" mimics mother nature as best a man can do. A couple of pointers from experience.
1. Walnuts do best in well drained rich soil. They will grow about anywhere. However, growth will be the best in good soil.
2. I plant about 4/5 nuts per hole about 4/5 inches deep. I leave the husks on. Has anyone noticed that the husks seems to dissolve the dirt around it, thereby planting the seed somewhat without the aid of a squirrel?
3. I don't use chemicals to control grass, weeds. I do mow three or four times a summer.

That is about it. Maybe in 50 years somebody will think ol' man Hougher was brilliant. Na, probably not. Who cares. It is fun to watch them grow. I think tree planters live longer just because they can't wait to see what the tree will look like after next year's growth.

Anonymous said...

Truely enjoyed reading your blog today! Although I can't really explain why, I've been planting black walnut trees since I was 6 years old. I recently purchased a new home and planted my first walnut tree yesterday. It came from a walnut tree I planted as a kid at my parents house. The squirrels must have planted it at some point. It's about one foot tall now. I've never planted one that has already began sprouting and growing, so hopefully it will do ok. Thanks for the wonderful advise you give. I think you answered any question I may have had in the process of replying to other peoples questions. Actually just one question. Do you recommend the use of any fertilizers or plant food?

Anonymous said...

An easy method to remove hulls is to clamp a large kitchen/butcher knife in a vise sometime after the hulls begin to turn brown and rot little. Simply rotate your nut with hull over the clamped knife edge and cut all the way through the hull to the nut surface. You can then grab each half of the nut and give it a twist. The hull will come off quite easily. Discard hulls and drop the nut into a pail of water. Give them a scrub with a stiff bristle brush to remove hull remnants. Time consuming, a bit messy, but an easy solution.

Anonymous said...

It's december and I discovered a very old walnut tree. It still had some nuts on the ground. There are 16+ gigantic oak trees (several centuries old monsters) at that location as well so that the squirels have excess food. I saw several individuals today and they were "bien dodus" (round). What are the chances squirell left me some full nuts for such a location. I will plant trees.

Anonymous said...

Is it too late to gather walnuts to plant? It's mid january as you can see from the date of this post. There are a few walnut trees on my street, one is in my back yard. I know now that I was supposed to gather the seeds in the fall, I wish I had learned this earlier, if I gathered them now and tried planting them would they work or would I be wasting my time? I know there is a possibility they could grow, but would the odds be against me? What should they look like if i were to gather them? Dark brown and wrinkled husks? No husks? Dried up husks? Any info would be greatly appreciated. Thank you for your time.
Frankie

Genevieve Netz said...

My suggestion is that you just let nature take its course for the rest of the winter. Next spring, watch for walnut seedlings popping up where the nuts have fallen. If you transplant them gently when very young, they should be fine.

Anonymous said...

That's what I was thinking I was going to have to do. I'm going to search the net for pictures of seedlings so I know what to look for. I plan on growing the tree as a bonsai. I only have one bonsai so far but I want to grow a variety of different trees. The tree I have is a juniper which is about two and a half years old, I have some Japanese black pine seeds that should be sprouting soon, and some cherry pits stratifying in the fridge. I am a beginner, but I have always been fascinated by bonsai trees. I have a bonsai book with walnut trees in it and they look amazing. Sorry for rambling and getting off subject, thanks for the help, hpoefully I can find some seedlings this spring :D
Frankie

Anonymous said...

I have used an old hand crank corn sheller to de-husk many a 5 gallon bucket full on black walnuts. Like someones had earlier, let then dry out for awhile and then start cranking. Boy, does it work great.
Bob at Sanders Mills
Castalia, NC

Anonymous said...

I knew of an older farmer who used an old hand cranked corn sheller to de-husk black walnuts. another tip i've heard is to use a stout hardwood board and drill a hole the size of the nut itself and use a hammer or mallet and knock it through the hole to de-husk the walnuts. hope this will help yall.

Al T.T. said...

One year I planted around 50 seeds off of one tree and none of them germinated!I,m confused,is the tree not fertile?

Anonymous said...

Thank you, Genevieve Netz.

This is a great article on simple planting methods, of the B.W. I have never tried to plant these before, but after reading your article, I am encouraged to try. I will start a few in pots, and a few, directly in the ground, wish me luck. Thank you!
Rainbow Ranch Farms

Genevieve Netz said...

I do wish you luck, and I think you'll do fine.

klra rouallen said...

It is July 2, 2013 --- and I have tons of two week old seedlings growing under my Black Walnut Tree in my yard. Can I transplant these two other places around my farm? If so are there any special instructions on how to to do this

Anonymous said...

I live in northwest Indiana. Last year I noticed about 10 walnut seedlings, planted by squirrels. I put up wire cages around them so as not to mow them down, but the leaders got topped off by deer. They are still growing well but I wonder if they will straighten themselves out? Now they are about 18" tall.
Should I start over with higher enclosures, or let these stay?
thanks,
Barbara

sacha said...

Last fall I planted two black walnuts in my backyard. This spring I was excited to see 4 "stems" or "baby" tree trunks pop up. Can I get 4 trees from two nuts or is that just nuts:)? The reason I am wondering is that I want to move them to another location but I don't want to kill them by thinking they are 4 instead of two trees, but I only want to leave one tree in the current location. Are these two trees or four?

Anonymous said...

Has anyone out there tried planting whole black walnuts purchased, already dehusked and scrubbed? Would the drying process prevent germination? Our area has many English Walnuts, but I would love to try a small grove of Blacks.

Anonymous said...

My wife and I love walnuts and pecans. We have two pecan trees and would like to have a few black walnut trees. We recently stopped along the highway and picked up a dozen black walnuts that had fallen recently. Thanks for all the seed planting ideas. Our seeds will soon be in the ground with hardware cloth. We have a red squirrel that plants and eats pecans in our back yard. Northern CA.

Anonymous said...

To remove husks from walnuts, IDEALLY you'll be dealing with nuts that are both fully ripe, and have fully intact hulls/husks. Take a piece of two-by-four and drill three separate holes into it with 1¼ and 1½ and 1¾ inch drill bit. An ideal type of bit to use is called a spade bit. Once you have a good idea of the size (diameter) of the hard wooden nuts under the hulls/husks, you'll know which of the holes you've drilled is going to work best to strip the hull away from the nut. Set the nut over the hole, put another piece of wood over that (or a brick) and either smack the piece of wood with a hammer, or stomp on it with your foot. With a brick, only use your foot, or you'll soon have a broken brick on your hands. It is not as simple as driving over them with a motor vehicle, but it puts you in charge of the project, and does a finer and more complete job of it. Black Walnuts should NEVER be allowed to dry out inside of the hull/husk, you will have a much lesser edible supply if you don't remove the hulls/husks when the nuts are freshly ripened.

mccommas said...

Thanks for the info. I got some of these things from the dump today! Nothing but Oaks and Maples here.

One thing though, why kill the ones you don't plan to use? If I have too many of anything I just put an ad on Craig's List and put them down by the curb. Its a sin to kill a tree for no reason.

Genevieve Netz said...

Sure, it's nice to dig them up and give them away if you can do it without disturbing the roots of the one strongest tree that you're going to keep.

Anonymous said...

Dear Genevieve, Thank-you for your effort. It has been very helpful. I like to build simple to elegant furniture with wood. I decided to try making my own natural stain and decided to start with walnut. I use the outer husk and process it with water to create a water based stain. It worked beautifully. Now I'd like to grow a few trees to provide the raw materials for myself. Your site has helped immensely. Thank-you. Sincerely, Marilyn

Anonymous said...

We use a hand crank corn sheller to de-husk the walnuts. Dry first and set the sheller setting tighter than for corn. Not sure where you will find one of these machines anymore, ours was Grandpa's. We also use it to shell Indian Corn.
Yes, walnut brownies are the best.

Happy New Year.

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Enrich your life with the study of trees.

"The power to recognize trees at a glance without examining their leaves or flowers or fruit as they are seen, for example, from the car-window during a railroad journey, can only be acquired by studying them as they grow under all possible conditions over wide areas of territory. Such an attainment may not have much practical value, but once acquired it gives to the possessor a good deal of pleasure which is denied to less fortunate travelers."

Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927)

Print references I frequently consult

Benvie, Sam. Encyclopedia of North American Trees. Buffalo, NY: Firefly, 2000.

Brockman, C. Frank. Trees of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Ed. Herbert S. Zim. New York: Golden, 1986.

Cliburn, Jerry, and Ginny Clomps. A Key to Missouri Trees in Winter: An Identification Guide. Conservation Commission of the State of Missouri, 1980.

Collingwood, G. H., Warren David Brush, and Devereux Butcher. Knowing Your Trees. Washington: American Forestry Association, 1978.

Dirr, Michael. Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs: an Illustrated Encyclopedia. Portland, Or.: Timber, 1997.

Elias, Thomas S. The Complete Trees of North America; Field Guide and Natural History. New York: Book Division, Times Mirror Magazines, 1980.

Grimm, William Carey. The Book of Trees;. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1962.

Hightshoe, Gary L. Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America: a Planting Design Manual for Environmental Designers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988.

Little, Elbert L. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees. New York: Chanticleer, 1996.

Martin, Alexander C., Herbert S. Zim, and Arnold L. Nelson. American Wildlife and Plants. New York: McGraw Hill, 1951.

Mitchell, Alan F., and David More. The Trees of North America. New York, NY: Facts On File Publications, 1987.

Randall, Charles E. Enjoying Our Trees. Washington: American Forestry Association, 1969.

Settergren, Carl D., and R. E. McDermott. Trees of Missouri. Columbia: University Extension, 1995.

Sternberg, Guy, and James W. Wilson. Native Trees for North American Landscapes: from the Atlantic to the Rockies. Portland: Timber, 2004.

Wharton, Mary E., and Roger W. Barbour. Trees and Shrubs of Kentucky. Lexington: University of Kentucky, 1973.

Wyman, Donald. Trees for American Gardens. New York: Macmillan, 1965.

Photos and text copyright © 2006-2010 by Genevieve L. Netz. All rights reserved. Do not republish without written permission. My e-mail address is gnetz51@gmail.com