Tree Notes is about trees -- especially native trees, trees for wildlife, and trees in history.

Wednesday, May 9, 2007

Trees that will grow near black walnut and butternut

Trees that tolerate juglone.


Juglone, a chemical emitted by black walnut and butternut trees, is toxic to some plants. Symptoms of juglone poisoning include yellowed, wilted leaves and plant death. If the sickened plant is growing within fifty feet of the dripline of a black walnut or butternut tree, juglone poisoning should be suspected.

Before you make the decision to plant a black walnut or butternut or any other sort of nut tree grafted on black walnut or butternut stock, it would be wise to find out if the plantings you already have in your garden or yard will be affected by juglone.

The Michigan State University (MSU) Department of Horticulture has compiled an excellent list of plants (trees, shrubs, grasses, flowers, vegetables, etc) that are particularly susceptible or resistant to juglone.

Here are the trees cited on the MSU list as...

Resistant to walnut toxicity

  • Acer negundo (Box Elder)
  • Acer nigrum (Black Maple)
  • Acer palmatum (Japanese Maple)
  • Acer palmatum-Dissectum (Japanese Maple)
  • Acer rubrum (Red Maple)
  • Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple)
  • Aesculus glabra (Ohio Buckeye)
  • Ailanthus glandulosa (Tree of Heaven)
  • Asimina triloba (Papaw)
  • Betula lenta (Black Birch)
  • Betula nigra 'Heritage' ("Heritage" River Birch)
  • Caraya sp. (Hickory)
  • Catalpa bignonoides (Common Catalpa)
  • Celtis occidentalis (Common Hackberry)
  • Cercis canadensis (Redbud)
  • Cornus Florida (Flowering Dogwood)
  • Crataegus spp. (Hawthorn)
  • Cydonia oblonga (Quince)
  • Fagus grandifolia (Beech)
  • Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey Locust)
  • Halesia carolina (Carolina Silverbell or Opossum Wood)
  • Juniperus virginiana (Red Cedar)
  • Koelreuteria paniculata (Goldenrain-tree)
  • Liquidamber styraciflua (Sweetgum)
  • Liriodendron tulipifera (Tulip tree)
  • Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum)
  • Oleaceae spp. (Autumn olive)
  • Picea abier (Norway Spruce)
  • Pinus jeffreyi (Jeffrey Pine)
  • Pinus virginiana(Scrub Pine)
  • Plantanus occidentalis (Sycamore)
  • Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)
  • Pyrus calleryana (Callery Pear)
  • Pyrus coronaria (American Crab)
  • Querus alba (White Oak)
  • Querus borealis (Red Oak)
  • Quercus imbricaria (Shingle Oak)
  • Quercus rubra (Northern Red Oak)
  • Querus ventutina (Black Oak)
  • Rhus hirta (Staghorn Sumac)
  • Robinia pseudoacacia (Black Locust)
  • Sassafrass variifolium (Sassafrass)
  • Tilia platyphyllas (Bigleaf Linden)
  • Tsuga canadensis (Canadian Hemlock)
  • Ulmus americana (American Elm)
  • Viburnum prunifolium (Black Haw)

Consult your local extension office for specific information about your local area.

And if you think black walnuts aren't worth all this trouble, well, perhaps you've never tasted a black-walnut pumpkin roll! (One such recipe here.)

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Enrich your life with the study of trees.

"The power to recognize trees at a glance without examining their leaves or flowers or fruit as they are seen, for example, from the car-window during a railroad journey, can only be acquired by studying them as they grow under all possible conditions over wide areas of territory. Such an attainment may not have much practical value, but once acquired it gives to the possessor a good deal of pleasure which is denied to less fortunate travelers."

Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927)

Print references I frequently consult

Benvie, Sam. Encyclopedia of North American Trees. Buffalo, NY: Firefly, 2000.

Brockman, C. Frank. Trees of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Ed. Herbert S. Zim. New York: Golden, 1986.

Cliburn, Jerry, and Ginny Clomps. A Key to Missouri Trees in Winter: An Identification Guide. Conservation Commission of the State of Missouri, 1980.

Collingwood, G. H., Warren David Brush, and Devereux Butcher. Knowing Your Trees. Washington: American Forestry Association, 1978.

Dirr, Michael. Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs: an Illustrated Encyclopedia. Portland, Or.: Timber, 1997.

Elias, Thomas S. The Complete Trees of North America; Field Guide and Natural History. New York: Book Division, Times Mirror Magazines, 1980.

Grimm, William Carey. The Book of Trees;. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1962.

Hightshoe, Gary L. Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America: a Planting Design Manual for Environmental Designers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988.

Little, Elbert L. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees. New York: Chanticleer, 1996.

Martin, Alexander C., Herbert S. Zim, and Arnold L. Nelson. American Wildlife and Plants. New York: McGraw Hill, 1951.

Mitchell, Alan F., and David More. The Trees of North America. New York, NY: Facts On File Publications, 1987.

Randall, Charles E. Enjoying Our Trees. Washington: American Forestry Association, 1969.

Settergren, Carl D., and R. E. McDermott. Trees of Missouri. Columbia: University Extension, 1995.

Sternberg, Guy, and James W. Wilson. Native Trees for North American Landscapes: from the Atlantic to the Rockies. Portland: Timber, 2004.

Wharton, Mary E., and Roger W. Barbour. Trees and Shrubs of Kentucky. Lexington: University of Kentucky, 1973.

Wyman, Donald. Trees for American Gardens. New York: Macmillan, 1965.

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